There are quite a few orange butterflies in Europe, although different in size, with very similar black markings:
- High Brown Fritillary (Argynnis adippe),
- Silver-washed Fritillary (Argynnis paphia),
- Cardinal (Argynnis pandora),
- Niobe Fritillary (Argynnis niobe),
- Dark Green Fritillary (Speyeria aglaja),
- Weaver`s Fritillary (Boloria dia),
- Marbled Fritillary (Brenthis daphne),
- Lesser Marbled Fritillary (Brenthis ino),
- Queen of Spain Fritillary (Issoria lathonia),
- Knapweed Fritillary (Melitaea phoebe),
- Spotted Fritillary (Melitaea didyma),
- Heath Fritillary (Melitaea athalia),
- Southern Heath Fritillary (Melitaea celadussa), and
- Glanville Fritillary (Melitaea cinxia).
The best way to distinguish them from each other is by looking at the underside of the hindwings.
Most of them have small white spots or other distinguised markings on the underside of the hindwings.
1st & 2nd photo: Nature Reserve Schlangenberg, Breinigerberg, North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany, 7 August 2022
3rd & 4th photo: Nature Reserve Schlangenberg, Breinigerberg, North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany, 3 May 2022