The Meadow Pipit looks very similar to the Tree Pipit. There are, however, subtle differences in appearance:
1. The Meadow Pipit's streaking on the flanks is just as heavy as on the chest, whereas the Tree Pipit's streaking on the flanks is noticeably finer than on the breast;
2. The Meadow Pipit's bill is slender with a yellowish base, whereas the Tree Pipit's bill is much heavier, with a pinkish base;
3. The Meadow Pipit has a long and almost straight hind claw, whereas the Tree Pipit has a short and curved hind claw;
4. The Tree Pipit has a slightly more elongated shape than the Meadow Pipit.
Other important differences are:
5. The Tree Pipit is a true summer visitor in Europe, which in winter stays in sub-Saharan Africa; The Meadow Pipit stays in Europe throughout the year;
6. Singing Meadow Pipits usually fly up and parachute back down to the ground while Tree Pipits usually sing from the tops of trees and parachute down into them instead of to the ground;
7. The song of a Tree Pipit is more melodious, louder and fuller.
1st photo: Naardermeer, Naarden, The Netherlands, 22 August 2016
2nd photo: Nature Reserve Bossche Broek, 's-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands, 19 June 2019
3rd photo: Vlissingen, The Netherlands, 30 May 2020
4th & 5th photo: Uiterwaarden, Everdingen, The Netherlands, 2 May 2018