There are a number of subspecies of the Black Redstart (Phoenicurus ochruros) which differ mainly in underpart colours of the adult males.
In general, seven subspecies are accepted.
They can be separated into three species groups:
1. European species (grey-bellied): P. o. gibraltariensis (Europe) and P. o. aterrimus (only Iberian Peninsula and Morocco);
2. West Asian species (red-bellied): P. o. ochruros and P. o. semirufus; and
3. Central and East Asian species (red-bellied): P. o. phoenicuroides, P. o. rufiventris and P. o. xerophilus.
The male European species has a clear pale wing-patch and a blackish-grey belly and undertail.
The male West Asian species has a weak pale wing-patch and a blackish-grey breast and rufous belly and undertail.
The male Central and East Asian species is quite similar to the latter species but it has no pale wing-patch and shows more rufous then black on the breast.
Top, Left & Middle: A male P. o. phoenicuroides. De Dollard, Oldambt, The Netherlands, 14 February 2018
Right: A female P. o. gibraltariensis. Oostvaardersplassen, Almere, The Netherlands, 29 March 2019
Last: A male P. o. gibraltariensis. Oostvaardersplassen, Almere, The Netherlands, 3 May 2015